The following information is what has worked well for our farm. Its also things we have learned in the past 25 years that we have raised llamas. There are certainly other ideas and practices that can work, these are just our experiences and what others have shared with us through the years. Please feel free to contact us with any questions.
New To Llamas
Why would you want a llama? If you have raised other livestock you will quickly see that llamas eat less, are easy on pastures, poop in one spot, are very intelligent, beautiful and graceful. They also produce wool that can be harvested each spring and used to make yarn and other wool products. Their manure makes excellent compost for gardens and plants. Llamas are gentle companions for all ages and easy to handle. Because they are so gentle, llamas often are taken to hospitals, nursing homes, schools, parades, and public events. You can also teach them to pull a cart and use them for packing and livestock guards. What are llamas used for? Some llamas are kept merely as pets, while others have a job as a guard or pack llama. Llamas can be shown in 4-H or open shows. They also can be taught to pull a cart. The wool of a llama is very soft and lanolin-free. It is used for spinning, felting, crocheting, knitting, and weaving.
Can I own just one llama? A llama should never be kept alone. Llamas have a strong herd instinct and do best with other llamas. Llamas can also be kept with goats, sheep, and alpacas as guards.
What do llamas eat? A llama requires pasture in the summer and hay in the winter. Llamas do well on mainly grass with a little bit of alfalfa. One llama will eat about a bale of hay a week. Feeding high quality hay will yield healthy llama. Hay that is moldy or old will not have the same nutritional value that fresh good quality hay has.
Llamas are often fed grain for growing, nursing and breeding females. We also use grain as a way to get everyone up in the barn to halter them. We have a grain mixed at our feed mill but you can also buy commercially developed grain for llamas at your local feed store. How much grain to feed will depend on the animal. Llamas that are nursing, growing or older animals may require more.
Minerals (sheep or llama mineral) should be provided for your llamas’ free choice. Llamas also enjoy a salt block. Zinc and sea kelp can be added to the minerals to help with skin conditions and wool growth. Copper is toxic to llamas so don't feed goat minerals or feed to your llamas.
Do llamas need a shelter? The answer is yes. Llamas need to be able to get out of the rain and snow. It can be three sided. The roof should be high and provide for good circulation and air flow to keep the heat down in the summer. An old dairy barn, horse barn or pole shed works well. In the summer time if it gets above 85 degrees Fahrenheit I would also suggest a fan. Shade is ideal in the summer as well. We also recommend straw for bedding, straw is less likely to get stuck in there wool. We do not recommend wood shavings for this reason.
For our studs we have a 3 sided moveable shelter that we added a front. We face the opening South. In the winter we add the plastic strips to block the wind. This shelter is very economical for only a few animals.
What type of fencing does a llama require? Llamas are pretty easy on fence compared to other livestock. It is recommended to be at least 4 feet tall or the llamas may jump out. There is a variety of fencing which can be used for your llamas such as wood, woven wire and high tensile fencing. DO NOT USE BARB WIRE. Also if you get a llama with good wool coverage electric fencing may not keep them in. They can’t feel the shock through their wool. We also recommend your pasture be free of burdocks as they get stuck in their wool. Your pastures will stay nice because the soft pads on the bottom of their feet result in a low impact on the environment. They also typically use set areas for there potty spots so clean up is easier. We have used Bekaert Gaucho High Tensile Field Fence 14 ga, 47" x 330 ft from Tractor supply. Then we add a smooth wire to the top to increase the height for the male pens.
What type of care do they require? Llamas need to be sheared annually. They can develop heat stress if they are not sheared. You can do just a body clip or the entire body. I do recommend to shear the neck at least every other year to avoid mats. You can use a electric shears or my favorite, a spring loaded Fiskars sewing scissors. (pictured below) Llamas need their nails trimmed a few times per year. The bottom of their foot is padded like a dog, but they have 2 toenails on each foot that grow continuously. This is something you can do yourself. Ask your breeder to show you how. We use an orange handled livestock nail trimmer. (pictured below) Intact male llamas, 2-3 years of age may need to have their fighting teeth removed. This may need to be repeated every few years, each male is different. Occasionally females and geldings can get them, but its not common. Contact your veterinarian or a llama breeder. Llamas need to be wormed for parasites. Frequency and type of dewormer depends on location. Doing a fecal float is highly recommended as to you can treat when needed and with the appropriate type of medication. We also give Ivomec injectable every 4-6 weeks for the prevention of Meningeal worm. Do you research on this parasite as camelids are very susceptible and oral dewormers do not work. They also need an annual CD&T vaccination. Contact your local llama breeder or veterinarian to set up a plan.
Do llamas like to be handled? Yes, most do. The more you interact positively with your llama the more they will want to be around you. You can take them for walks. Our llamas come up for treats. Just be patient and you will find llamas can a great companions. How to halter a llama? Use a llama halter made for llamas when haltering. You can purchase these at Farm N Fleet, Tractor Supply, Nasco and Useful Llama Company. A horse halter will not fit properly. When placing the halter the ring should sit high on the nose. It should not be too tight but not loose enough that it will slide down on the nose. When the halter it not fitted correctly the llama can have difficulty breathing. The halter should not be kept on the llama in a pasture. They can get hooked on fencing and hang themselves.
Winter Care in Cold Climates Winter can be cold in the Midwest and we do find that we need to coat most of our suri fleeced llamas as well as old or very young llamas. Its important to also feed good quality hay and make sure they have shelter from the wind and snow. You can purchase llama coats from Useful Llama Company or Amazon (Large Foal Coats for adults).
International Camelid Institute
Lots of good resources and videos of llama care can be found on the Camelid Community web page. https://www.icinfo.org/
Llamas used for Guarding Livestock
Here is an older article, but a study done about using guard llamas and their effectiveness. "Guard Llamas: A part of integrated sheep protection"
Approach, Halter, and Lead Your Camelids With Ease